Azerbaijan has a well developed transport infrastructure. It includes more than 22000 km of roads, over 2000 km of railroads as well as 5 international and 2 local airports. In 2013, the share of transport sector in Azerbaijan's GDP was 4.8%. Oil and gas pipelines are top performers within the sector (Table: Capital investments in transport) although other segments also experience rapid growth.

Azerbaijan has successfully completed structural reforms in the transport sector with a clear separation between the regulatory and commercial functions of transport agencies. The Ministry of Transport remains the regulatory body while Azerbaijan Railways CJSC manages railroad transportation, the State Maritime Administration oversees maritime transportation and the State Civil Aviation Administration is responsible for aviation issues. Motorway transportation services are within the realm of the "Avtonegliyyatservis" Department of the Ministry of Transport. Azerbaijan Airlines CJSC is the national air carrier.

Azerbaijan is an important hub for multi-modal transit of goods and passengers from Europe to Asia and back. Landmark infrastructure projects under implementation include Baku International Sea Trade Port in Alat and Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway. The port in Alat will handle more than 20 million tons of cargo annually making Baku once again the biggest sea port on the Caspian. The Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway project is a joint endeavor by the Governments of Azerbaijan, Turkey and Georgia to facilitate international transit of goods and passengers from China to Europe hereby helping unlock the region’s huge transit potential.

Azerbaijan is also an active member of the Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA).